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Aug 23Liked by Shingai

Hi Shingai, interesting article. However, I would like to offer an alternative definition of information and knowledge. Firstly, there is information at source. This is the static or dynamic structure common to multiple entities that we recognise due to its recurrence. Only living beings and some of their artifacts can recognise information in this way. Other non-living things cannot. For the avoidance of doubt there is no metaphysical component to this. It is an evolved trait that helps us to predict the behaviour of recurring entities, whether objects, events or circumstances, should we encounter them in the future. To enable us to process, remember, and transmit this information to others, we use simplified symbols, such as mental images, words, etc., to represent each item. That is, we translate information at source into cognitive information and language information. Knowledge is a collection of these symbols and the relationships between them. For example a sentence such as "snakes are a danger" is knowledge. "Snakes" is not. This knowledge forms the basis of our behaviour when we encounter such entities in the future. That is, we regard them as an opportunity, as neutral, or as a threat, and behave accordingly. Information in symbolic form enables us to share knowledge with others and this is also an evolved trait. There are many ways that such information can deteriorate and fail to accurately represent information at source. That is many ways in which it can become false. Shannon & Weaver's theory of noise in the communication channel only scratches the surface. We also have, for example, effort after meaning (Bartlett 1922), rationalisation, propaganda, misunderstanding, and even deliberate lies.

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